For a while, I found it very odd that the Yoruba today do not accept (or probably just don’t know) of the sultan Bello account as their oral traditions. They presently trace themselves to an entity called Odudua who was stated to either be a god or founder of Ile-Ife and the various clans of Yoruba-land. I’ve acquired much information on them and to this day, am still confused. Although, as I started to fit the pieces together, something was telling me to leave off from it. Months later, I have decided to share what I have found in books regarding them, their old ways and beliefs. This information presented could and should be cross-referenced with others. (I have left off from posting the Egyptian culture/customs and decided to focus on the beliefs.) Shalom. “NOTES ON THE TRIBES, PROVINCES, EMIRATES AND STATES OF THE NORTHERN PROVINCES OF NIGERIA.” O. TEMPLE; 1919. YORUBA “The origin of the Yoruba is unknown, but according to the Sarkin Illo (Sokoto) and his council, the Yoruba were, together with the Bussawa, Kengawa and Gurumawa (at one time one race), part of a great migration from the neighborhood of Mecca. Their sovereign, Kishera, king of Badar, opposed the advance of the Prophet Mahomet, in which he sought the assistance of his relative the Sarkin Bornu, but in vain. He was defeated and killed, and his son led the people westwards in flight across the Sudan. One section broke off and settled at Bussa, another at Nikki, and a third at Illo, under three brothers, descendants of Kishera, while a fourth party, the YORUBA, pushed on further down the Niger River and overran Florin and the countries of the south. This may be compared with what Mohammed Bello, of Sokoto, writes of them: “The inhabitants of this Province, it is supposed, originated from the remnant of the children of Canaan, who were of the tribe of Nimrod. The cause of their establishment in the West of Africa was, as it is stated, in consequence of their being driven by Yaarooba (Yaruba), son of Kaftan, out of Arabia to the western coast between Egypt and Abyssinia. From that spot they advanced to the interior of Africa till they reached Yarba, where they fixed their residence. On their way, they left in every place where they stopped at, a tribe of their own people. Thus it is supposed that all the tribes of Sudan, who inhabit the mountains, are originated from them, as also the inhabitants of Yauri. IN CONFIRMATION OF THIS A MORE RECENT AUTHORITY WRITES: “THEY THEMSELVES, WHO KNOW NOTHING OF NIMROD, CLAIM TO BE DESCENDED FROM ‘THE MOTHER OF THE HUNTER’S CHILDREN”……………..AND AT IFE AND IN ABEOKUTA, THE GREAT MOTHER OF THE SIX TRIBES IS STILL WORSHIPPED UNDER THE NAME OF IYA OMMOHOD DEH—THE MOTHER OF THE HUNTER’S CHILDREN.” ONE OF THEIR FIRST PRINCES WAS NAMED YORUBA.” (Most likely derived from YARRIBA as shown on the old maps.) “The Yoruba are a nation numbering some four million, and though the majority live in Southern Nigeria, large numbers are distributed over the Provinces of Ilorin, Kontagora, and Niger, and a few hundreds in Nassarawa and Sokoto. There are various clans of Yoruba, speaking the same language, but with different tribal marks. The most important of these are the Egba at Abeokuta, Jebu or Gebu, north of Abeokuta, Badan at Ibadan, Bumaso—also in Southern Nigeria, Ileboro or Igboro—at Offa. The Ekiti, ‘Gbona and Yagba also speak dialects of Yoruba, and are probably offshoots, though it is sometimes asserted that they are not. The Baedegi at Jebba are also Yoruba from Ilorin." pg. 376-377 “The Fifth and last day in the Yoruba week is sacred to Obatala, and out of respect to him his votaries are not permitted to work thereon. Besides being a sky-god, he is particularly god of the South. There is one “Denge” (=Family) who worship Oshalla in Northern Nigeria. He married a goddess named ODUDUA, or ODUA, who was co-eval with Olorun, and who represents the earth. Her name means “BLACK ONE.” She is patroness of love, and her chief temple is at ADO, in Southern Nigeria; she is not known in Northern Nigeria. She bore to her husband a boy and a girl; AGANJU, whose name means “Uninhabited tract of country, wilderness, plain, or forest,” god of the dry soil, whose worship has fallen into desuetude; and Yemaja (yeye=mother, eja=fish), who is the goddess of the moist soil and of streams, presiding over ordeals by water. She is represented by a female figure, yellow in color, wearing blue beads and a white cloth. She married her brother Aganju and bore a son named ORUNGAN (Orun=sky, gan=to be high), god of the space between sky and earth. Thus we see that from the union of heaven and earth sprang land and water, and from land and water and air. Orungan fell in love with his mother and ravished her. She fled from him in loathing, but as he was about to seize her she fell backward to the ground. Her body swelled and streams of water gushed from her breasts till they formed a lagoon, whilst her body burst open and she gave birth to fifteen gods in the following order: DADA (god of vegetation), SHANGO (god of lightning), OGUN (god of iron and war), OLOKUN (god of the sea), OLOSA (goddess of the lagoon), OYA (goddess of the River Niger), OSHUN (goddess of the River Oshun), OBA (goddess of the River Oba), ORISHA OKO ( god of agriculture), OSHOSI (god of hunters), OKE (god of mountains), AJE SHALUGA (god of wealth), ORUN (the sun-god), OSHU (the moon). On the place where she fell a town named IFE (meaning distension or swelling up) was built in commemoration of the event, and became the holy city of the Yoruba-speaking tribes,” pg. 382-383 “THE EGBA AND THEIR NEIGHBORS 1842-1872.” SABURI O. BIOBAKU; 1957. “The truth probably was that the ALAKE, by his direct descent from ODUDUWA, the legendary founder of Ile-Ife, possessed a prestige that raised him above the rivalry of municipal kings. Forever, he was probably at the head of a later and more virile migration whose claim to leadership was conceded. At all events, Ake became the capital town and the name of the group was changed from Egba Agbeyin to Egba Alake. The Alake himself was chosen primarily by five towns which were adjacent to one another and may be taken to have formed the core of the Alake migration. These OMO-IYA or sister towns have retained their premier position till the present day. pg. 4 "THE LAWS AND CUSTOMS OF THE YORUBA PEOPLE." A.K. AJISAFE; 1924. "2. Relationship is reckoned through females: "IDI IYA LI A PON SI," one leans to his mother's side. The female side is stronger." pg. 2 There are several more posts to come. I will also make a separate post for an ethnic group that intertwines with the Erhverh migration.